Medical Diagnostic Procedures in Kenya

list of common medical diagnostic procedures in Kenya :

Blood tests :

  • Complete Blood Count (CBC)
  • Blood Chemistry Tests (Electrolyte Panel, Liver Function Tests, Kidney Function Tests, etc.)
  • Blood Lipid Panel (Cholesterol and Triglycerides)
  • Blood Glucose Test (for Diabetes Diagnosis)
  • Blood Coagulation Tests (PT/INR, APTT, etc.)
  • Blood Culture (to detect infections)
  • Blood Cell Differential (to evaluate types of white blood cells)
  • Hemoglobin A1C (to measure average blood sugar levels over the past 2-3 months)
  • Prothrombin Time (PT) Test
  • Vitamin and Mineral Tests (Iron, Vitamin B12, Folate, etc.)
  • Blood Typing (to determine a person’s blood type)
  • Autoimmune Tests (such as ANA and anti-dsDNA)
  • Blood Gas Analysis (to measure oxygen and carbon dioxide levels)
  • Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) and Creatinine Tests (to assess kidney function)
  • Blood Lead Level Test

Imaging tests :

  • X-rays
  • Computed Tomography (CT) scans
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
  • Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scans
  • Ultrasound (Sonography)
  • Mammography (for breast imaging)
  • DEXA scans (for bone density measurement)
  • Angiography (to visualize blood vessels)
  • Fluoroscopy (to visualize internal organs in real-time)
  • Nuclear Medicine Scans (such as Thyroid scans and bone scans)
  • Endoscopic Ultrasound (EUS)
  • Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA)
  • Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA)
  • Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography (CCTA)
  • Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging (CMR or CMRi)

Endoscopic procedures :

  • Upper Endoscopy (EGD or Gastroscopy)
  • Colonoscopy
  • Sigmoidoscopy
  • Bronchoscopy
  • ERCP (Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography)
  • Endoscopic Ultrasound (EUS)
  • Esophageal Manometry
  • Gastric Emptying Study
  • PEG (Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy) Tube Placement
  • Endoscopic Thoracic Sympathectomy (ETS)
  • Capsule Endoscopy
  • Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR)
  • Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection (ESD)
  • Balloon-assisted Enteroscopy (BAE)
  • Endoscopic Variceal Ligation (EVL)

Biopsy Procedures:

  • Skin biopsy
  • Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA) biopsy
  • Bone marrow biopsy
  • Lymph node biopsy
  • Liver biopsy
  • Kidney biopsy
  • Pancreatic biopsy
  • Thyroid biopsy
  • Prostate biopsy
  • Breast biopsy
  • Cervical biopsy
  • Uterine biopsy
  • Testicular biopsy
  • Amniocentesis (fetal tissue biopsy)
  • Pulmonary biopsy

Electrodiagnostic tests :

  • Electroencephalogram (EEG)
  • Electromyogram (EMG)
  • Nerve Conduction Study (NCS)
  • Electroneurography (ENG)
  • Evoked Potentials (EP)
  • Polysomnogram (PSG)
  • Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG)
  • Holter Monitor
  • Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitor (ABPM)
  • Implantable Loop Recorder (ILR)
  • Event Monitor
  • Cardiac Output Monitoring
  • Transesophageal Echocardiogram (TEE)
  • Intracardiac Electrophysiology Study (EPS)
  • Impedance Cardiography

Cardiac testsĀ  :

  • Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG)
  • Stress Test (Exercise ECG, Treadmill Test, or Exercise Stress Test)
  • Holter Monitor
  • Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitor (ABPM)
  • Implantable Loop Recorder (ILR)
  • Event Monitor
  • Cardiac Output Monitoring
  • Echocardiogram (Transthoracic Echocardiogram or TTE)
  • Transesophageal Echocardiogram (TEE)
  • Dobutamine Stress Echocardiogram (DSE)
  • Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging (CMR or CMRi)
  • Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography (CCTA)
  • Cardiac Catheterization
  • Angiogram
  • Electrophysiology Study (EPS)

Pulmonary function tests :

  • Spirometry
  • Peak flow measurement
  • Lung Volume Measurements (Total Lung Capacity, Functional Residual Capacity, Residual Volume, etc.)
  • Diffusion Capacity (DLCO)
  • Nitrogen Washout/Washin Test
  • Methacholine Challenge Test
  • Bronchodilation Test
  • Bronchoprovocation Test
  • Arterial Blood Gas (ABG) Analysis
  • Oxygen Saturation Test (Pulse Oximetry)
  • High Altitude Simulation Test
  • Plethysmography (Body Box)
  • Inspiratory/Expiratory Strength Testing
  • Respiratory Mechanics
  • Sleep Studies (Polysomnogram or PSG)

Urinalysis:

  • Physical examination of the urine sample (appearance, color, odor, and clarity)
  • Chemical examination (dipstick test)
  • Microscopic examination (urine sediment analysis)
  • Specific gravity (density of urine)
  • pH level
  • Protein
  • Glucose
  • Ketones
  • Blood (hemoglobin or red blood cells)
  • Bilirubin
  • Urobilinogen
  • Nitrite
  • Leukocytes (white blood cells)
  • Creatinine
  • Microbial analysis (urine culture)

Pap smear:

A Pap smear, also known as a cervical cancer screening test, is a type of test used to screen for cervical cancer in women. Here is a list of the components of a typical Pap smear test:

Pregnancy tests:

  • Urine pregnancy test (home pregnancy test)
  • Blood pregnancy test (beta human chorionic gonadotropin or beta hCG test)
  • Transvaginal ultrasound (sonogram)
  • Hormone level test
  • Pelvic exam

Kenya is a country located in East Africa with a population of approximately 50 million people. The healthcare system in Kenya is facing many challenges, including limited access to medical services and diagnostic procedures, especially in rural areas. However, the country is making progress in improving its healthcare system and expanding access to medical services. In this article, we will discuss some of the medical diagnostic procedures that are commonly performed in Kenya and the challenges that healthcare professionals face when providing these services.

Medical Diagnostic Procedures Kenya

Blood Tests

Blood tests are one of the most common diagnostic procedures performed in Kenya. These tests are used to measure various components of the blood, including red and white blood cells, platelets, and electrolytes. Blood tests can provide important information about a patient’s health and are used to diagnose a variety of conditions, including anemia, infections, liver and kidney problems, and cancer. Some of the most common blood tests performed in Kenya include the complete blood count (CBC), electrolyte panel, liver function tests, and HIV tests.

Imaging Tests

Imaging tests are another important diagnostic tool used in Kenya. These tests use various technologies, including X-rays, MRI, CT scans, and PET scans, to create images of the inside of the body. These images can help healthcare professionals diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, including cancer, heart disease, and joint problems. Although imaging tests are widely used in Kenya, access to these services is limited, especially in rural areas, where many patients have to travel long distances to receive this care.

Endoscopic Procedures

Endoscopic procedures are diagnostic tests that use a thin, flexible tube equipped with a camera to examine the inside of the body. These procedures are commonly performed to examine the gastrointestinal tract, including the esophagus, stomach, and large intestine. Endoscopic procedures can also be used to examine the airways, bladder, and joints. In Kenya, endoscopic procedures are performed in larger cities, but access to these services is limited in rural areas.

Biopsy

A biopsy is a procedure in which a small sample of tissue is removed from the body and examined under a microscope. Biopsies are used to diagnose a variety of medical conditions, including cancer, and are an important diagnostic tool in Kenya. In Kenya, biopsies are performed in larger cities and regional hospitals, but access to these services is limited in rural areas.

Electrodiagnostic Tests

Electrodiagnostic tests are diagnostic procedures that measure the electrical activity of muscles and nerves. These tests are used to diagnose conditions such as muscle and nerve disorders, including carpal tunnel syndrome, peripheral neuropathy, and myasthenia gravis. In Kenya, electrodiagnostic tests are performed in larger cities and regional hospitals, but access to these services is limited in rural areas.

Cardiac Tests

Cardiac tests are diagnostic procedures that are used to evaluate the function of the heart and the blood vessels. These tests are used to diagnose conditions such as heart disease, heart attack, and arrhythmias. In Kenya, cardiac tests are performed in larger cities and regional hospitals, but access to these services is limited in rural areas. Some of the most common cardiac tests performed in Kenya include the ECG, echocardiography, and stress test.

Pulmonary Function Tests

Pulmonary function tests are diagnostic procedures that are used to evaluate the function of the lungs. These tests are used to diagnose conditions such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and lung cancer. In Kenya, pulmonary function tests are performed in larger cities and regional hospitals, but access to these services is limited in rural areas.

Urinalysis