Kenya Expanded Programme Immunization Schedule Read or Download this article as PDF
Immunization, or immunisation, is the process by which an individual’s immune system becomes fortified against an agent (known as the immunogen).
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When this system is exposed to molecules that are foreign to the body, called non-self, it will orchestrate an immune response, and it will also develop the ability to quickly respond to a subsequent encounter because of immunological memory.
Vaccination is the administration of antigenic material (a vaccine) to stimulate an individual’s immune system to develop adaptive immunity to a pathogen. Vaccines can prevent or ameliorate infectious disease.
Immunization is a proven tool for controlling and eliminating life-threatening infectious diseases and is estimated to avert between 2 and 3 million deaths each year according to WHO
Kenya’s Immunization Schedule: Kenya Expanded Programme on Immunization Schedule
KEPI was established in June, 1980 by the Kenya government to oversee and monitor vaccinations to all children in Kenya against five common diseases at that time. To improve outcomes, a number of vaccines have been added since then.Kenya Expanded Programme Immunization Schedule
- BCG (Bacillus Calmette–Guérin vaccine)
Given at birth
The vaccine is given by injection into the skin.It helps to build immunity against Tuberculosis(TB)
- Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV)
Given at birth, 6th Week, 10th Week and 14thWeek
Polio vaccines are vaccines used to prevent poliomyelitis (polio).
Poliomyelitis, often called polio or infantile paralysis, is an infectious disease caused by the poliovirus. In about 0.5 percent of cases there is muscle weakness resulting in an inability to move.
Three doses of live-attenuated OPV produce protective antibodies to all three poliovirus types in more than 95% of recipients.OPV is given orally(by mouth)
Inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) is the only polio vaccine that has been given in the United States since 2000.
It is given by shot (injection) in the arm or leg, depending on the person’s age
- DPT-HepB-Hib(Diphtheria, Pertussis, Tetanus,and Hepatitis B and Haemophilus influenzae type b)
Given at 6th week, 10thWeek and 14thWeek
Pentavalent Vaccine is a vaccine that contains five antigens (diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus,and hepatitis B and Haemophilus influenzae type b)
Diphtheria is a serious bacterial infection that affects the mucous membranes of the throat and nose.
Symptoms include sore throat, fever, swollen lymph nodes and weakness.A type of bacteria called Corynebacterium diphtheriae causes diphtheria
Pertussis, also known as whooping cough, is a highly contagious respiratory disease. It is caused by the bacterium Bordetella pertussis. Pertussis is known for uncontrollable, violent coughing which often makes it hard to breathe.
Tetanus is a serious bacterial disease that affects your nervous system, leading to painful muscle contractions, particularly of your jaw and neck muscles.Spasms may be so severe that bone fractures may occur.
Tetanus is caused by an infection with the bacterium Clostridium tetani.
Hepatitis B is an infectious disease caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) that affects the liver
Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) Haemophilus influenza type b (Hib) is a bacteria responsible for severe pneumonia, meningitis and other invasive diseases almost exclusively in children aged less than 5 years. It is transmitted through the respiratory tract from infected to susceptible individuals.
- Pneumococcal vaccine (PCV 10)
Given at 6th Week, 10th Week and 14th Week
Pneumococcal vaccines are vaccines against the bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae.Their use can prevent some cases of pneumonia, meningitis, and sepsis.
- Measles Vaccine
Given at 9 months
Measles vaccine is a vaccine that prevents measles.Measles is a highly contagious infectious disease caused by the measles virus.Symptoms usually develop 10–12 days after exposure to an infected person and last 7–10 days.nitial symptoms typically include fever, often greater than 40 °C (104.0 °F), cough, runny nose, and inflamed eyes.
A red, flat rash which usually starts on the face and then spreads to the rest of the body typically begins three to five days after the start of symptoms.
- Yellow Fever Vaccine
Given at 9 months
Yellow fever vaccine is a vaccine that protects against yellow fever.Yellow fever is a viral infection that occurs in Africa and South America.In most cases, symptoms include fever, chills, loss of appetite, nausea, muscle pains particularly in the back, and headaches.
- Tetanus vaccine (TT)
Given at Pregnant women, WCBA and School aged
children 7 to 14years
Tetanus vaccine, also known as tetanus toxoid (TT), is an inactive vaccine used to prevent tetanus.During childhood five doses are recommended, with a sixth given during adolescence.
Tetanus often begins with mild spasms in the jaw muscles—also known as lockjaw or trismus. The spasms can also affect the facial muscles resulting in an appearance called risus sardonicus. Chest, neck, back, abdominal muscles, and buttocks may be affected. Back muscle spasms often cause arching, called opisthotonos. Sometimes the spasms affect muscles that help with breathing, which can lead to breathing problems.
- Vitamin A
Given at 6 months,12 months,18 months,24 months,30 months,36 months,42 months,48 months,54 months and 60 months. Less 6 weeks Postpartum mothers.
Vitamin A is an essential vitamin needed for growth and development, cell recognition, vision, immune function, and reproduction
Where to Get Vaccinations in Kenya
Principles of Kenya Expanded Programme on Immunization
Countries have primary ownership and responsibility for establishing good governance and for providing effective and quality immunization services for all
Shared responsibility and Partnership
Immunization against vaccine-preventable diseases is an individual, community and governmental responsibility that transcends borders and sectors.
Equitable access to immunization is a core component of the right to health
Strong immunization systems, as part of broader health systems and closely coordinated with other primary health care delivery programmes, are essential for achieving immunization goals.
Informed decisions and implementation strategies, appropriate levels of financial investment, and improved financial management and oversight are critical to ensuring the sustainability of immunization programmes.
The full potential of immunization can only be realized through learning, continuous improvement and innovation
in research and development, as well as innovation and quality improvement across all aspects of immunization
Kenya Expanded Programme Immunization Schedule
Other vaccines offered in private Hospitals but not by KEPI:
• Flu Vaccine ( 6 & 7 Months )
• Chicken Pox I & II – 9 & 11 Months
• Menactra 1 (Meningitis) – 9 Months
• MMR – Mumps, Measles and Rubella – 15 Months
• Typhoid – 2 Years
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References / Citations
- Ndiritu, Moses, et al. “Immunization coverage and risk factors for failure to immunize within the Expanded Programme on Immunization in Kenya after introduction of new Haemophilus influenzae type b and hepatitis b virus antigens.” BMC Public health 6.1 (2006): 132.
- Cowgill, Karen D., et al. “Effectiveness of Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine introduction into routine childhood immunization in Kenya.” Jama 296.6 (2006): 671-678
- Henderson, Ralph H., and Thalanayar Sundaresan. “Cluster sampling to assess immunization coverage: a review of experience with a simplified sampling method.” Bulletin of the World Health Organization 60.2 (1982): 253.
- Maina, Lilian Chepkemoi, Simon Karanja, and Janeth Kombich. “Immunization coverage and its determinants among children aged 12-23 months in a peri-urban area of Kenya.” Pan African Medical Journal 14.1 (2013).
- Dulbecco, Renato, and Marguerite Vogt. “Plaque formation and isolation of pure lines with poliomyelitis viruses.” Journal of Experimental Medicine 99.2 (1954): 167-182.
- FENDALGD, NBE, and B. M. Lake. “Poliomyelitis in Kenya.” Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 61.6 (1958): 135-44.