When a couple has been unsuccessful at achieving pregnancy after one year(for women under 35years) or 6 months(for women above 35years), both partners need to go through a comprehensive physical and medical assessment.
At the first infertility appointment, the doctor will ask lots of relevant questions ,below are some of the questions asked by fertility specialists:
1.Previous pregnancies and children, if there has been any complications or miscarriages
2.Medical history if you have any chronic illnesses
3.lifestyle: use of alcohol, cigarettes, or any illegal drugs,use of caffeine etc
4.Length of time since stopping contraceptives
5.Medication: if you are under any medications
6.Sex: how often you have sex,any difficulties during sex etc
7.Length of time trying to conceive
These tests are not mandatory and your fertility specialists will know which tests to recommend in your situation.
1.Physical Exams:for women the specialist my order a pelvic exam to look for Sexually transmitted diseases, pelvic inflammation disease, lumps etc
For men ,the specialist may look at testicles for lumps and deformities, and any penis abnormalities
The specialist may check female hormones, prolactin,thyroid hormones etc
In men Complete semen analysis is usually required to check shape,number and motility of sperms
3.BBT Charting: is a way to estimate when you’ll ovulate so you’ll know when to have sex if you want to conceive.
4.Endometrial Biopsy:An endometrial biopsy is the removal of a small piece of tissue from the endometrium, which is the lining of the uterus. This tissue sample can show cell changes due to abnormal tissues or variations in hormone levels.
5.Ultrasound Tests:A pelvic ultrasound is a noninvasive diagnostic exam that produces images that are used to assess organs and structures within the female pelvis. A pelvic ultrasound allows quick visualization of the female pelvic organs and structures including the uterus, cervix, vagina, fallopian tubes and ovaries.
6.Laparoscopy:Laparoscopy is a surgery that uses a thin, lighted tube put through a cut (incision) in the belly to look at the abdominal organs or the female pelvic organs . Laparoscopy is used to find problems such as cysts, adhesions, fibroids , and infection. Tissue samples can be taken for biopsy through the tube (laparoscope).
7.Body mass index:a weight-to-height ratio, calculated by dividing one’s weight in kilograms by the square of one’s height in meters and used as an indicator of obesity and underweight.
8:Hysterosalpingogram:Hysterosalpingography (HSG), also known as uterosalpingography, is a radiologic procedure to investigate the shape of the uterine cavity and the shape and patency of the fallopian tubes. It entails the injection of a radio-opaque material into the cervical canal and usually fluoroscopy with image intensification.